What we're technically talking about here is a tidal disruption flare, the name for the moment when a star wanders too close to a black hole and starts to get ripped apart.
A black hole is all set in engaging in a stellar feast and its feeding like a monster on the gases of the nearby star as this black hole resides about 10,000 light years away from our Earth and eventually, we all have been watching this. The flash, called ASASSN-14li, looked just like your typical black-hole-gravity-shredding-a-star-to-bits event, happening near the center of a host galaxy.
"It is very hard, the Spin of a Black hole limit, as the Spin effects occur only very close to the hole itself, where the gravity is extremely strong and it is hard to get a clear view", explains Pasham, in a communication to the European space Agency Esa.
The discovery dates back to November 2014, when astronomers were observing a galaxy 300 million light years from Earth.
Black holes are massive beasts that annihilate anything that dares to cross them. Even so, the researchers plan to search for more flare events around both younger and older black holes. They apparently detected "echoes" within the explosion of X-ray light that helped them discover what happens to the black hole itself during an outburst.
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Mass for the black hole is about 1 million times the mass of the sun, and given the stable proximity of the signal to the black hole, the team has calculated that the black hole is spinning at a rate of at least 50% of the speed of light. As it orbits the black hole, the spot's signal changes in a periodic way, enabling astronomers to estimate how large its orbit is and, therefore, how fast the black hole is spinning.
"NICER's observations of J1820 have taught us something new about stellar-mass black holes and about how we might use them as analogs for studying supermassive black holes and their effects on galaxy formation", said co-author Philip Uttley, an astrophysicist at the University of Amsterdam. The signal lasted a surprisingly long time - at least 450 days, a duration that Pasham says is "really freakish". The corona is also compact, lying closer to the black hole rather than over much of the accretion disk. Now he says that, given the team's results, such tidal disruption flares can be used to estimate the spin of supermassive black holes - a characteristic that has been, up until now, incredibly tricky to pin down.
"NICER has allowed us to measure light echoes closer to a stellar-mass black hole than ever before", said first author Erin Kara. He made a decision to apply his code to the three datasets for ASASSN-14li, to see if any common periodic patterns would rise to the surface. We now have no way to measure the spins of quiescent black holes. It was the first Time the researchers the Tear of a star for their spinning-were able to use calculations, Pasham.
When the white dwarf comes into contact with this stellar material, it likely illuminates the white dwarf, emitting X-rays each time it circles the black hole, every 131 seconds. A relatively low rotation rate would implicate mergers as the primary factor, because these random smashups likely wouldn't keep spinning the growing black hole up in the same direction.
The X-ray pulses were emitted by a dying star as it was sucked into the black hole - like its final screams being heard across the Universe. "Estimating spins of several black holes from the beginning of time to now would be valuable in terms of estimating whether there is a relationship between the spin and the age of black holes". "Their result suggests that tidal disruption events should be regularly followed up by x-ray telescopes to maximise our knowledge of their properties". The team now hopes to find more stable signals from TDEs to estimate the properties of other black holes.
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