First proof of quantum computer advantage - Physorg

IBM Proves Quantum Computers Can Be Faster Than Classical Ones

The development of quantum technology is one of the main occupations in researcher's plans.

In the paper, researchers prove that a quantum computer with a fixed circuit depth can outperform a classical computer that's tackling the same issue because the circuit depth can stay constant in the first case. The advantages of these quantum computers have not been totally proved but the evidence point in the right way.

TechCrunch reported that Science today published a paper ("Quantum advantage with shallow circuits") by Sergey Bravyi of IBM Research, David Gosset of the University of Waterloo's Institute for Quantum Computing and Robert König of the Institute for Advanced Study and Zentrum Mathematik, Technische Universität München.

Traditional computers store data as long strings made up of binary digits (bits), which encode as either a one or a zero. In conventional memory units, each bit - the smallest unit of information - is represented by a microscopic dot on a microchip. Each of the dots can hold a charge that determines whether the bit is set to 1 or 0. Classical computers typically require exponentially more resources and power as the number of variables increase.

In their work, the researchers claim the quantum computer lives up to the promise of it being able to solve certain problems significantly faster. A quantum bit is also called qubits.

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They claim to have proved this by showing how a "difficult" algebraic problem can not be solved using classical constant-depth circuits.

One example is Shor's quantum algorithm, which efficiently solves the problem of prime factorisation. This type of circuit is referred to as having a "constant depth". Other problems will likely continue to be solved by classical computers, even as quantum computers mature, because not every problem may have a highly parallelized quantum computing solution.

"Our result shows that quantum information processing really dies to provide benefits, without having to rely on unproven complexity theoretic conjectures" Robert Konig said about the new results of their research.

This news adds to the string of quantum achievements, including ANU's tiny camera lens that may serve as the missing link between networks and quantum computers reported in September, and the University of Bristol's silicon chip that could bolster quantum cryptography reported in February.

The quantum circuit has a simple structure and is showing characteristics of being a candidate for a future experimental realization of quantum algorithms.

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