Supermassive Black Hole Discovered at Edge of Cosmic Dawn

Image result for The astronomers announced the most distant and oldest super massive black hole which was not seen even has now been discovered. It was published in a study on Wednesday. The black hole is there in a quasar and its light reaches us from

The mass of this black hole is some 800 million times that of our sun, in contrast to the 4-million-mass black hole thought to lie at the center of our own Milky Way galaxy. The results were published today in papers in Nature and Astrophysical Journal Letters.

"This black hole grew far larger than we expected in only 690 million years after the Big Bang, which challenges our theories about how black holes form", said study co-author Daniel Stern of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California.

The new supermassive black hole J1342+0928 (yellow star), which resides in a mostly neutral universe at the edge of cosmic dawn, is more distant than any other found to date (yellow dots).

The light from this quasar was emitted 690 million years after the Big Bang, relatively close to the beginning of everything. Eduardo Bañados of the Carnegie Institution for Science in Washington, DC led the team of astronomers that made this discovery, using Carnegie's Magellan telescopes in Chile.

The astronomer who found the odd black hole said that there's no way of explaining how a black hole would be able to pick up such mass, and that it might challenge out current understandings of how black holes form. The discovery will provide fundamental information about the universe when it was only 5 percent of its current age.

Quasars are the most luminous non-transient objects known, and as such they enable studies of the Universe at the earliest cosmic epochs.

The universe began in a hot soup of particles that rapidly spread apart in a period called inflation. "Models of galaxy evolution will need to be able to explain how a galaxy could form the stars needed to produce the observed amounts of dust and heavier chemical elements in such a comparatively short time", Venemans said.

When light hits a neutral hydrogen atom, the atom can absorb the light and lose its electron.

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As more stars formed, they generated enough radiation to flip hydrogen from its neutral state to an ionized state. This is the point at which the universe became transparent to light.

The researchers used FIRE to determine that a large fraction of the hydrogen surrounding the quasar is neutral. If it is located in a denser than average part of the universe, it could get an earlier start in life and grow more quickly.

"The universe is full of surprises", Bañados said.

The redshift measurement is 7.54, making it the second of only two known quasars with a redshift above 7. The higher the redshift, the greater the distance, and the farther back astronomers are looking in time when they observe the object.

The unexpected discovery is based on data amassed from observatories around the world.

Astronomers spotted the black hole, the most distant ever found, sitting inside a bright object so far away that the light had been traveling for 13 billion years before reaching Earth.

Scientists predict the sky contains between 20 and 100 quasars as bright and as distant as this quasar. However, even in our most conservative analysis we find xHI 0.33 (xHI 0.11) at 68 per cent (95 per cent) probability, indicating that we are probing well within the reionization epoch.

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